Tuesday, May 26, 2020

How a Space Elevator Would Work

A space elevator is a proposed transportation system connecting the Earths surface to space. The elevator would allow vehicles to travel to orbit or space without the use of rockets. While elevator travel wouldnt be faster than rocket travel, it would be much less expensive and could be used continuously to transport cargo and possibly passengers. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky first described a space elevator in 1895. Tsiolkovksy proposed building a tower from the surface up to geostationary orbit, essentially making an incredibly tall building. The problem with his idea was that the structure would be crushed by all the weight above it. Modern concepts of space elevators are based on a different principle — tension. The elevator would be built using a cable attached at one end to the Earths surface and to a massive counterweight at the other end, above geostationary orbit (35,786 km). Gravity would pull downward on the cable, while centrifugal force from the orbiting counterweight would pull upward. The opposing forces would reduce the stress on the elevator, compared with building a tower to space. While a normal elevator uses moving cables to pull a platform  up and down, the space elevator would rely on devices called crawlers, climbers, or lifters that travel  along a stationary cable or ribbon. In other words, the elevator would move on the cable. Multiple climbers would need to be traveling in both directions to offset vibrations from the Coriolis force acting on their motion. Parts of a Space Elevator The setup for the elevator would be something like this: A massive station, captured asteroid, or group of climbers would be positioned higher than geostationary orbit. Because the tension on the cable would be at its maximum at the orbital position, the cable would be thickest there, tapering toward the Earths surface. Most likely, the cable would either be deployed from space or constructed in multiple sections, moving down to Earth. Climbers would move up and down the cable on rollers, held in place by friction. Power could be supplied by existing technology, such as wireless energy transfer, solar power, and/or stored nuclear energy. The connection point at the surface could be a mobile platform in the ocean, offering security for the elevator and flexibility for avoiding obstacles. Travel on a space elevator would not be fast! The travel time from one end to the other would be several days to a month. To put the distance in perspective, if the climber moved at 300 km/hr (190 mph), it would take five days to reach geosynchronous orbit. Because climbers have to work in concert with others on the cable to make it stable, its likely progress would be much slower. Challenges Yet to Be Overcome The biggest obstacle to space elevator construction is the lack of a material with high enough tensile strength  and  elasticity and low enough density to build the cable or ribbon. So far, the strongest materials for the cable would be diamond nanothreads (first synthesized in 2014) or  carbon nanotubules. These materials have yet to be synthesized to sufficient length or tensile strength to density ratio. The covalent chemical bonds connecting carbon atoms in carbon or diamond nanotubes can only withstand so much stress before unzipping or tearing apart. Scientists calculate the strain the bonds can support, confirming that while it might be possible to one day construct a ribbon long enough to stretch from the Earth to geostationary orbit, it wouldnt be able to sustain additional stress from the environment, vibrations, and climbers. Vibrations and wobble are a serious consideration. The cable would be susceptible to pressure from the solar wind, harmonics (i.e., like a really long violin string), lightning strikes, and wobble from the Coriolis force. One solution would be to control the movement of crawlers to compensate for some of the effects. Another problem is that the space between geostationary orbit and the Earths surface is littered with space junk and debris. Solutions include cleaning up near-Earth space or making the orbital counterweight able to dodge obstacles. Other issues include corrosion, micrometeorite impacts, and the effects of the Van Allen radiation belts (a problem for both materials and organisms). The magnitude of the challenges coupled with the development of reusable rockets, like those developed by SpaceX, have diminished interest in space elevators, but that doesnt mean the elevator idea is dead. Space Elevators Arent Just for Earth A suitable material for an Earth-based space elevator has yet to be developed, but existing materials are strong enough to support a space elevator on the Moon, other moons, Mars, or asteroids. Mars has about a third the gravity of Earth, yet rotates at about the same rate, so a Martian space elevator would be much shorter than one built on Earth. An elevator on Mars would have to address the low orbit of the moon Phobos, which intersects the Martian equator regularly. The complication for a lunar elevator, on the other hand, is that the Moon doesnt rotate quickly enough to offer a stationary orbit point. However, the Lagrangian points could be used instead. Even though a lunar elevator would be 50,000 km long on the near side of the Moon and even longer on its far side, the lower gravity makes construction feasible. A Martian elevator could provide ongoing transport outside of the planets gravity well, while a lunar elevator could be used to send materials from the Moon to a locatio n readily reached by Earth. When Will a Space Elevator Be Built? Numerous companies have proposed plans for space elevators. Feasibility studies indicate an elevator wont be built until (a) a material is discovered that can support the tension for an Earth elevator or (b) theres a need for an elevator on the Moon or Mars. While its probable the conditions will be met in the 21st century, adding a space elevator ride to your bucket list might be premature. Recommended Reading Landis, Geoffrey A. Cafarelli, Craig (1999). Presented as paper IAF-95-V.4.07, 46th International Astronautics Federation Congress, Oslo Norway, October 2–6, 1995. The Tsiolkovski Tower Reexamined.  Journal of the British Interplanetary Society.  52: 175–180.  Cohen, Stephen S.; Misra, Arun K. (2009). The effect of climber transit on the space elevator dynamics.  Acta Astronautica.  64  (5–6): 538–553.  Fitzgerald, M., Swan, P., Penny, R. Swan, C. Space Elevator Architectures and Roadmaps, Lulu.com Publishers 2015

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Withered Arm - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 957 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/24 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Does Hardy portray a typical view of ghost stories with â€Å"The Withered Arm†? In my opinion I don’t think so. Let’s have a look at the comparisons. A typical ghost/supernatural story has usually three ghost sightings but in â€Å"The Withered Arm† it’s a different story. The ghost of a living person appears once in the form of a vision. This is very unlike the stereotypical ghost stories of today. I feel Thomas Hardy has uncovered a whole new type of ghost story. One of the messages the story conveys is ‘don’t wish bad on others or it will come back to haunt you’ Our story is set in the fictional region of South West England known as ‘Wessex’. There we meet our three main characters, Rhoda Brook, Farmer Lodge and Gertrude Lodge. Rhoda is a faded milkmaid and twelve years before the story is set Rhoda had an affair and fell pregnant with Farmer Lodge’s child. As he was of a higher class, Farmer Lo dge soon abandoned Rhoda and his child. He is now newly wed to the more suited, Gertrude. Although Rhoda had never met the new bride, she carried a strong grudge against her. One night Rhoda had a supernatural vision of the young Mrs Lodge with â€Å" features shockingly distorted † and â€Å" wrinkled as by age These are some of the phrases used to describe the vision. Also Gertrude flashes her new ring at Rhoda taunting her, â€Å"the figure thrust forward its left hand mockingly†. I feel this is the point in the story in which the reader is engaged. I do not feel this is typical of a ghost story, like I said previously; the vision was of a living person and not the undead. Setting doesn’t play a strong part in the story but it is still important. Take the description of Rhoda’s house for example; â€Å"a rafter showed like a bone protruding through the skin† This allows the reader to empathise with Rhoda’s situation. The description o f her house then goes on to say the walls were made of mud, this shows the reader just how working class Rhoda is and how life must be a struggle for her and her son. Also the description of Egdon Heath and the atmosphere around it plays a significant role in the story. â€Å" dark though it was as yet only early afternoon † â€Å" the wind howled dismally † The language used describes the atmosphere of Egdon Heath as mysterious and quite frightening. This story is written in the third person so the reader can observe all the characters and also it makes the story unbiased. I don’t feel in some ways the characters are typical of a ghost story and in some ways are not. The number of characters, a small amount, is typical of a ghost story. Also there is a fortune teller, conjuror Trendle, like in many supernatural stories. There are no ‘ghost characters’ as such, making the story different to most other ghost/supernatural stories. Hardy uses chapte rs in his short story to create suspense and to break it down. The chapters often end on cliff hangers which hooks the reader in. The use of rhetorical questions proves a deal of suspense. â€Å"Could this be the explanation, and had such things as this ever happened before? Hardy leaves a lot to the imagination for example, the egg in the glass, you never see what Gertrude sees in the glass and you never hear what conjurer Trendle says to her. This is left to the reader’s imagination. It is obvious what Gertrude sees in the glass, yet Hardy does not tell us, making the reader question what they originally thought. The dream scene with Rhoda and Gertrude is an excellent example of how tension builds in the story. The imagery and use of emotive language helps portray the suspense and tension â€Å"the figure thrust forward its left hand mockingly† â€Å" addened mentally and nearly suffocated by pressure † I think the ending of the story is very well done. For s ome the ending may seem rushed, but it is a short story and it delivers its message quickly but effectively. The twist in the story is that the young man being hanged was in fact Rhoda’s son and all three main characters are present for the first time. Hardy sums up at the end what happens after Gertrude’s death, following the hanging. This is important for the reader, as it ties together what happens with the characters later on in life. Hardy raises concerns about social class in â€Å"The Withered Arm† He feels that the working class were mistreated and shows this, in the description of Rhoda’s house, the fact that Rhoda’s son is so unimportant he doesn’t have a name and, because of his working class how he was hanged as an example to trouble makers, even though he was innocent. He wants the reader to share his views. Hardy’s own life was somewhat similar to the events that happened in â€Å"The Withered Arm† He was an ou tcast when it came to working in London, just like Rhoda in the dairy. His mother was of higher class than his father, like Rhoda, Farmer Lodge and the boy. This is significant to the story as it has some relation to Hardy’s personal life. Also he was a strong believer in the supernatural and supernatural forces and his mother would have known conjurors in the village he grew up in, people like conjuror Trendle. As a modern reader I feel that Hardy has succeeded in telling an effective tale as it scared me like it would have scared the readers in Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Withered Arm" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Sleep On Children And Adults - 1839 Words

Felicity Mensah-Bonsu Health Psychology February 28th, 2016 Since the semester started sleep has been something that has alluded me several times. I can’t remember the last time I had a full 7 or 8 hour sleep. My sleep pattern now seems to consist of barely any naps and close to 4 or 5 hours of sleep. For this project i want to look at how i can improve my sleep patterns so that i’m getting more than 4 to 5 hours of sleep a day and if it’ll improve my work ethic as well as my health. Sleep is a concept that many students and adults hold dearly. There is nothing better than a good nap or a full hour or so of sleep, however, how much sleep we are expected to have daily is sometimes unknown and we may not be getting the recommended hours†¦show more content†¦Another set of researchers have come to the conclusion that a big part of college students sleep patterns has to do with their sleep variability. Sleep variability can affect a person’s cognitive performance. One of the ways you can define this is that sleep variability is the â€Å" irregular sleep durations across several days† (Whiting Murdock, 2016). Sleep variability can also be defined â€Å"in terms of bedtime and wake time shifts across school and non-school nights† (Whiting Murdock, 2016). No matter how you look at it sleep variability is focusing on a person’s sleep patterns. In terms of college students like myself this would be the inadequate amount of sleep th at I am receiving that can affect my â€Å"psychological functioning, mood, as well as cognitive and academic performance that has to do with attentional functioning† (Whiting Murdock, 2016). As I was looking into interventions and monitoring plans for my study that i would be conducting i came across a few that I thought would be interesting to try out. One intervention focused around sleep disturbances in adolescents. The article covers the idea that sleep deprivation can â€Å"worsen emotion regulation, increase irritability, anxiousness, hostility, and even fatigue† (Paavonen, Huurre, Tilli, Kiviruusu, Partonen, 2015). Other problems also include cognitive problems, low attendance, poor school performance, and even symptoms that can mimicShow MoreRelatedSleep Is An Important Part Of Everyday Life Of A Human Being1704 Words   |  7 PagesSleep is an important part of the everyday life of a human being. There are multiple sleep cycles but in the process one of the most important stages is known as REM Sleep. REM also known as rapid eye movement is the very unique phase of sleep where the eyes begin to randomly move, and the extremities of the body become paral yzed while vivid dreaming begins to occur. This stage is the the most important for the consolidation of different memories and also in facial recognition and other mental processesRead MoreSleep And Its Effect On Children1342 Words   |  6 PagesSleep is extremely beneficial and plays an important role in every person’s health. Mostly, sleep is a crucial component in an infant’s first year of life, however there is very little research done on sleep and its effect on learning in motor development in infants. Motor development is defined as the ability to move and to develop those movements over time. Even though studies that address how sleep impacts infant’s new motor skills are very few, sleep does play a role in multiple factors duringRead MoreBenefits Of Living A Healthy Lifestyle Essay983 Words   |  4 Pagesaspects that are most beneficial to a healthy life include sleep, diet and nutrition, and exercise. To live a healthy life starts at a young age. Living a healthy lifestyle when young is beneficial for adult life. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

CSL Global Group

Question: Discuss about the CSL Global Group. Answer: Introduction CSL Global group is a biotherapeutics specialty company, which provides services in Australia, Switzerland, Germany, America, and the UK. The company employs more than 16,000 workers in over 30 countries (csl.com.au 2016). Macquarie group, on the other hand, is the leading provider of funds, investment, advisory and financial management services to the major financial centers around the world (macquarie.com/au 2016). The project aims at comparing and contrasting the business processes of the two companies based on their mission statements, values of the organization, stakeholders and corporate social responsibilities in the market. The project also aims at analyzing whether the companies are meeting with the SMART objectives and goals. Vision and Mission Statement CSL The biotherapeutics specialty company aims at developing biotherapies, which are innovative and are helpful in saving lives of people having life threatening medical conditions. The focus of the company is on the life-cycle management, safety of product portfolio and new product development (csl.com.au 2016). The company is eager to invest on its Research and Development sector in the future such that to incorporate the latest technology within its product development process. The company has also a strong commitment for the funding of the innovative medical products in order to fulfill the medical needs of the patients in the future. Macquarie group The aim of the Macquarie group is to diversify its business process, which could be covering a wide range of capital and advisory markets, trading, asset finance, funds management and other financial sectors in the market. This integration of the diversity of the operations together with a strong risk management framework and strong capital positions has put the company to an unbroken competitive advantage in the market. Adopting the name of its creator with the holey dollar as its symbol, the company aims at incorporating its quest of practical approaches in order to generate profitable outcomes (macquarie.com/au 2016). Smart objectives Goal 1: Developing and diversifying the business process Key Component Objective Specific CSL- developing biotherapies, which are innovative Macquarie- diversifying business process conering a wide range of financial sectors Measurable CSL- fulfill the medical needs of the patients Macquarie- generate profitable outcomes Achievable CSL- Yes, by incorporating the latest technology within the product development process Macquarie- Yes, by integrating the diversity of the operations together with a strong risk management framework Realistic CSL- invest on Research and Development sector Macquarie- integration of the diversity of the operations with a strong risk management framework Time-Bound CSL- Within few years Macquarie- As soon as possible SMART objective: to maintain strong position by gaining competitive advantage in the market Source: Created by author Values of the Organization CSL The company look for synergies with existing business units and consider opportunities in the therapeutically categories that could help in improving the unmet medical needs of the patients. The business operations of the company integrates a well characterised properties, well validated data and a defined mechanism of action that has helped it in gaining A strong intellectual property position in the market (csl.com.au 2016). The company also conducts clinical trials and scientific advisory panels in order to develop capabilities for supporting the early stage research opportunities in the market (Grne et al 2014). Macquarie group Macquarie integrates opportunity, accountability, and integrity principles within its business approach in order to realize the benefits of its stakeholders (macquarie.com/au 2016). The company encourages ingenuity, innovation and entrepreneurial spirit within its stakeholders such that to enable them to achieve and succeed in the long run. The company realizes the significance of opportunity and integrates the same to be a part of its team members. The company also believes in maintaining its standards and taking responsibility for all the action of its stakeholders while making business decisions. The company also incorporates high ethical standards within its business culture such that to earn the trust of its stakeholders. Smart objectives Goal 2: Integrating opportunities and various principles within the business approach Key Component Objective Specific CSL- synergies with existing business units Macquarie- integrating opportunity, accountability, and integrity principles within its business approach Measurable gaining a strong intellectual property position in the market Achievable CSL- integrating a well characterised properties, well validated data and a defined mechanism of action Macquarie- maintaining its standards and taking responsibility for all the actions while making business decisions Realistic CSL- clinical trials and scientific advisory panels Macquarie- Stakeholders are the main resources Time-Bound CSL- Within a few years Macquarie- Within a few years SMART objective: to develop capabilities for supporting the opportunities in the market Source: Created by author Corporate Social Responsibility CSL CSL group integrates the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in order to conduct its business processes in an ethical way. This integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility within the business process also help the company in contributing to the social, economic, and environmental well-being of its communities as well. The various CSR priority areas of the company include the Research and Development, therapeutic, working, biomedical, and other business environment (csl.com.au 2016). The company also implements the business practice codes that help in guiding and shaping the way it conducts its business process. Moreover, the Corporate Responsibility Steering Committee helps in driving integration, awareness, and improvement of the CSR throughout the company. Macquarie group Macquarie group integrates the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) commitment in its business processes which helps the company in focusing on the areas that are considered material to its business (Kuszewski and Crowther 2012). Macquarie group also implement specific Code of Conduct, which deals in the areas reflecting the risk and opportunities for the company. The business and the issues of interest of the companys stakeholders identify this code of conduct as followed by the company as well (Klettner, Clarke and Boersma 2014). The code of conduct governs the various economic, social, and corporate factors for the company including the environment, workplace, markets, stakeholders, and the sustainability of the company in direct operations as well. Smart objectives Goal 3: Include the CSR in the business areas which are considered material to the business Key Component Objective Specific CSL- priority areas of the company include the Research and Development, therapeutic, working, biomedical, and other business environment Macquarie- focusing on the areas that are considered material to its business Measurable CSL- improvement of the CSR throughout the company Macquarie- enhanced sustainability of the company Achievable CSL- prioritizing the areas of the company include the Research and Development, therapeutic, working, biomedical, and other business environment Macquarie- integrating the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) commitment in its business processes Realistic CSL- Corporate Responsibility Steering Committee Macquarie- Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) committee Time-Bound Within a year SMART objective: to govern the corporate factors in order to gain sustainability in the market Source: Created by author Stakeholders CSL The stakeholders of CSL group include the shareholders, employees, governments, investors, and suppliers. CSL implements polices that governs the directors and employees towards the ethical concerns in the situations of potential conflict of political involvement, interest, financial inducements and bribery. The company commits to operate with the highest integrity such that to gain the trust of its stakeholders and infuse confidence in them. The company has engaged with NAVEX, which helps, in facilitating the reporting of the queries and concerns of the stakeholders of the company (csl.com.au 2016). This engagement of NAVEX promises in investigating and resolving the concerns and issues of the stakeholders. Macquarie group With the experienced Board members and business leaders, Macquarie aims at delivering long-term profitability and returns to its stakeholders by implementing the standards corporate governance and managing the market risks. The stakeholders of the company includes is the investors, clients, suppliers, governments, employees and the wider community. The company incorporates the environmental, social and governance (ESG) commitment that reflects on the responsibility for its clients and communities and stakeholders as well (macquarie.com/au 2016). The company believes in building strong relationships with its stakeholders fro maintaining trust and enhancing the business performance as well. Smart objectives Goal 4: Gaining trust and confidence in the stakeholders Key Component Objective Specific operating with the highest integrity such that to gain the trust of its stakeholders and infuse confidence in them Measurable CSL- implements polices that governs the directors and employees towards the ethical concerns Macquarie- long-term profitability and returns to its stakeholders Achievable CSL- implements polices that governs the staheholders towards situations of potential conflict of political involvement, interest, financial inducements and bribery. Macquarie- Realistic CSL- engagement with NAVEX for facilitating the reporting of the queries and concerns Macquarie- Establishing Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) committee Time-Bound Within a year SMART objective: to enhance the business performance of the stakeholders Source: Created by author Conclusion The project is an assessment of the business process of two companies, which helps in applying to the understanding of the impact of the same within the organizations. The comparison of the business processes of the companies is based on the mission statements, values, stakeholders, and Corporate Social Responsibility of the organizations. The comparisons include the analysis of the business goals and objectives of the organizations in respective of the Smart objectives. This comparison of the organizations is conducted in order to check whether their business goals are meeting with the SMART objectives in the long run. References csl.com.au, (2016).CSL Ltd is a leader in plasma protein biotherapeutics. [online] Csl.com.au. Available at: https://www.csl.com.au/about [Accessed 11 Aug. 2016]. Grne, G., Lockemann, S., Kluy, V. and Meinhardt, S., 2014. Business Process Management within Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries. Klettner, A., Clarke, T. and Boersma, M., 2014. The governance of corporate sustainability: Empirical insights into the development, leadership and implementation of responsible business strategy.Journal of Business Ethics,122(1), pp.145-165. Kuszewski, J. and Crowther, Y., 2012. Canada and the green economy. macquarie.com/au, (2016).Company profile | Macquarie Group. [online] Macquarie.com. Available at: https://www.macquarie.com/au/about/company [Accessed 11 Aug. 2016].

Monday, April 13, 2020

Visy Supply Chain Management

Executive Summary Managing operations and Supplies are business processes that ensure adequate supply of materials in a company at the right time at an appropriate competitive cost. Visy, being in the business of packaging, paper manufacture and recycling requires a constant supply of materials for its production.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Visy Supply Chain Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the company has adequate supply of materials, it is able to produce goods in the right time at an affordable and competitive price. To understand and know areas of improvement of the company’s supply chain management, this report will take an analysis of current supply chain situation in the company and give recommendations on value-adding services that the company can implement in the context of logistics operations. To get the information required for the report, the researcher will use internal information from the company’s website, take a research on consumer preferences and their attitude and finally take a competitive analysis where products of other similar companies will be considered (Visy official website, 2011). Introduction Having a good supply chain management makes a company have continuous production. It ensures that there are adequate supplies at an appropriate price and time. When this is attained, a company gains competitive advantage (Khoo, Bainbridge, spedding and Taplin, 2001). Visy is in the business of collecting waste paper and manufacturing packaging products, the company’s operation are favored by environment conservations in the world; since the company plays a crucial part in maintain a clean environment. On the other hand, the products from the company are recyclable thus; it gets favor from international and national communities. A second strength of the company is a strong brand name in the highly competitive advantage; the name a ssists the company tap opportunities brought about by globalization.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One threat facing the company is high competition and the situation of world economies, there are increasing entrants in the industry and the world economic growth rate has been hampered by global financial crisis of 2007 (Hsu, Tan, Kannan and Keong, 2009). To remain competitive, the company needs to have strategic business operation strategies with among them having an effective and reliable supply chain (both inwards and outwards logistics). Analysis of the existing situation From the analysis of the current situation I the organization, the supply chain management can be commended for their effective supply chain management however the system is likely to be faced by a number of issues. The following are the areas that can be looked into: Expand to international supply o f waste paper for the company law materials Adopt a ‘just in time’ supply system Have an integrated supply chain management that connects all the 110 sites in a way that they can share resources Outsourcing some logistic services to reliable providers and Undertake massive research on the trend in different economies that it can make products that are responsive to consumers needs. Develop a value addition strategy Other than using recycling processes alone to conserve and preserve the environment, the company should diversify in other business that still respect the company’s motto of conservation(Goold and Campbell, 2002). Globalization has made it possible for companies to procure from differently countries, in their efforts to seek for quality products; this offers Visy and opportunity to sell its products globally and is affected indirectly by the increase in international trade. The company strategy supports green supply chain systems that have increasingl y being advocated for in the world, in green supply chain, the effects on environment are crucial component of a supply. Other than having, the physical goods there should be of the right quality and quantity. Companies that adopt a green supply chain enjoys a wider customers base; it is facilitated further by customer enlighten on issues pertaining environmental conservation. The increased presence of goods form international market has resulted to an increase in demand for environmentally friendly production.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Visy Supply Chain Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those companies who have focused on producing goods, which are environmentally friendly, have secured larger markets than those companies who have not. They are gaining more customer royalty than those whose products and mode of production is not environmentally friendly (Fugate, Mentzer and Stank, 2010). When v alue is added to the company products, customer will get a higher utility form the company and will be willing to buy the products. The company on the other hand will benefit a direct and indirect increase in sales resulting from its customer value increase. Conclusion Although Visy can be commended for being; leader in the recycling business, the company should not relax it value additions; it should invest further in technology and develop other ways of doing business. The company has been in the business for more than 62 years, thus it has a developed a pool of knowledge that it can depend on to improves its products and value they give to customers further. With the leadership in the industry and its strong brand name, the company has the opportunity to use brand extension strategies to increase its sales further. It can easily penetrate other markets as a buyer of recyclable waste material/semi-recycled materials and as a seller of its variable commodity. The global situation i s offering an opportunity to the company as it has embarked on massive campaigns to advocate for the use of environmentally friendly products; this has created a demand for the company’s products. With the current situation, the company is on a better platform to increase and diversify its operation through creating value in its customers and adding value to its products (Creswell, 1998). Recommendations Visy to tap the increasing demand for its products, then it has to develop quality, quantitative, price and logistic objectives. Supply chain management is a strategic management process that ensures that a company has the right goods at the right time and at a competitive cost. It should ensure that at any one time there are adequate materials for production of goods and services. Visy raw materials are mostly recycled paper products that need to be fetched and ensured they are of the right quality and quantity.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Proper supplies of the materials from suppliers working for the company as contractors to collect the material and from companies established for that business (Arntzen, Brown, Harrison and Trafton, 1995). The following are the improvements that the company can make for better logistics eventually leading to an improved business: Value determination mechanisms Value in supplies for manufacture of good translates to value in finished goods. Though the company deals with wastes, not all wastes can be of the right quality. For an efficient supply chain management, there should be value determination mechanism set by the company (Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky and Simchi-levi, 2007). All goods getting in the company should be vetted for quality. Other than raw materials, there should be vetting of output in different stages of production to ensure that there is quality in the final output (Cooper, Lambert and Pagh, 1997). Different industries require different packaging’s; the company sho uld aim at developing a strong research team that analysis the different industries in the world so as it can advice the company effectively on the right material to fetch and use for products targeting certain industry. Supplier relation Visy should develop a good business relationship with its suppliers, as this will assist in making sure that there is reliability in the supply of materials. Suppliers in the company fall in the category of contractors and those companies in the business of supplying raw materials and semi finished goods. This will ensure that the company manufacturing is kept with the right materials always. On the other hand, it is easy to get goods at a better price and market data from suppliers whom the company has established good business relations (Mentzer,2001). Just in time supply mechanism The company should develop a ‘just in time’ supply management system; it creates mechanisms for efficiency and effectiveness in the system. The systems ar e structured in such a way that there is minimal supply in the store but the company has a constant and reliable supply of raw materials. It should undertake an internal analysis of its needs for production (Larson and Halldorsson, 2004). There are times that the company requires more products (this is mostly times of high production) and sometimes pit requires low supplies. This should be documented and the system made in such a way there is always a just in time supply. A just in time supply means that at any one point in time, the company is has adequate supply (Ward Glass, 2008). Supplier base management and Procurement department/ team There is more than one supplier capable of supplying the company with raw materials for its processes. However, they should be vetted to ensure that the best option has been selected (Ketchen and Hul,2006). With the increased industries requiring packaging materials, the company should enforce its research and development department to be able t o get the right supplier for different products. Procurement department is mandated with this task and considers factors like, Reliability: the company must be dependable thus it will not fail Visy, on the other hand it should be adjustable to demands of materials Capability: Visy being an international company, it requires suppliers who can meet its demand for raw materials. Price: the prices set by the supplying company should be set at the best price in the market at any one time. Past experiences: companies which the company has had a nice experience with the company should be used Quality assurance and effectiveness: the suppliers contracted should assure quality in their deliveries (Haag,2006). International logistics and integrated logistics With globalization and massive campaigns in environmental conservations, the company can tap international markets to get its raw materials. To get the supplies from these countries, the company has to understand customs and trade laws that exist between the procured country and Australia. When procuring internationally, to reduce transport costs, the company should get the products in semi-finished state like paper pulp. A contracted company in the country procured can do the semi manufacturing; this will increase raw materials and increase the base of material search. References Arntzen, B., Brown, G., Harrison, T. and Trafton, L., 1995. Global Supply Chain Management at Digital Equipment Corporation. Interfaces, 25(1), 69-93. Cooper, M.C., Lambert, D.M. and Pagh, J.. 1997. Supply Chain Management: More Than a New Name for Logistics. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 8(1), pp. 1–14. Creswell, J., 1998. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Fugate, B., Mentzer, J. and Stank, T.,2010. LOGISTICS PSERFORMANCE: EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS, AND DIFFERENTIATION. Journal of Business Logistics, 31(1), pp 43-62. Goold, M . and Campbell, A., 2002. Do you have a well-designed organization? Harvard Business Review, 80(3),pp 117-124. Hsu, C., Tan, K., Kannan, V. and Keong, G., 2009. Supply chain management practices as a mediator of the relationship between operations capability and firm performance. International Journal of Production Research, 47(3), pp 835-855. Haag, S. et el. ,2006. Management Information Systems For the Information Age. New Jersey: McGraw Hill Ryerson Ketchen Jr., G. and Hult, T.M.,2006. Bridging organization theory and supply chain management: The case of best value supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2),pp. 573-580. Khoo, H. H., Bainbridge, I., Spedding, T. A. and Taplin, D. R.,2001. Creating a Green Supply Chain. Greener Management International, 2(35), pp 71-78. Kouvelis, P., Chambers, C., Wang, H., 2006. Supply Chain Management Research and Production and Operations Management: Review, Trends, and Opportunities. In: Production and Operations Management, 15 (3), pp. 449–469. Larson, P.D. and Halldorsson, A. ,2004. Logistics versus supply chain management: an international survey. International Journal of Logistics: Research Application, 7, (1),Pp. 17-31. Mentzer, J. T.et el.,2001. Defining supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics, 22(2), 1–26. Simchi-Levi D.,Kaminsky P. and Simchi-levi E., 2007. Designing and Managing the Supply Chain. New Jersey: Mcgraw Hill. Visy official website.2011. Visy for a better world. Available at  https://www.visy.com.au/innovative-packaging Ward Jr., M., and Glass, L., 2008.Inventory Management Systems. National Petroleum News, 100(1), p.24. This report on Visy Supply Chain Management was written and submitted by user Dirty F0x to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Planned Strategy Essays

Planned Strategy Essays Planned Strategy Essay Planned Strategy Essay Planned strategy involves a centre authority, which formulates their intentions as precisely as possible and then strive for its implementation. To do this, the organisation needs to articulate its intentions in the form of a plan and then elaborate on this strategic plan in as much detail as possible. This is prepared by using measures such as schedules, budgets and forecasts. Planned strategy involves making formation assumptions and then following a strict strategy process approach, with strategic decision making taking place in a number of steps. Ansoff (1965) cited in Harris, Forbes Fletcher (2000) illustrates that strategic decision making takes place in four principle steps. These are the perceptions of the decision need or opportunity, formulation of alternative courses of action, evaluation of the alternatives in relation to their respective contributions and the choice of one or more alternatives. This process illustrates how planned planned strategy is. Planned strategy is useful in organisations because it breaks down the process into manageable units. The process of setting objectives and goals allows the management to plan and motivate for the future and this also stimulates employee discussion and debates. Furthermore, the control system enables organisations to periodically review progress and understand how closely their internal performance adheres to their strategic goals and intentions (Osborn, 1998). For planned strategy to be implemented successfully, numerous factors need to be considered. The market and organisation environment needs to be predictable so that strategies can be implemented in a steady and rational way. Planned strategy is useful for controllable elements where the processed are incremental and linear. However, in practical terms, this may not be possible in turbulent, dynamic environments. This is one limitation of the planned approach to strategy formation. When an environment is complex and somewhat uncontrollable or unpredictable, a variety of sub-units in the organisation need to able to respond, especially if there is rapid change (Brown Eisenhardt, 1998). In these situations, patterns in the organisation cannot be planned in one central place (Mintzberg Waters, 1985). Today, organisations are faced with numerous fluctuations in the economy and major technological change. As such, development time frames are becoming shorter and shorter and organisations need to constantly update their production processes. Therefore, the planned strategy may become obsolete over the planning period, due to the changes in the external environment. Brown Eisenhardt (1998) believe that planned strategies fail because they overemphasise the degree to which it is possible to predict which industries, competitors, positions and competences will be viable for what length of time. Furthermore, planned strategies underemphasise the importance and challenge of creating and executing the chosen strategy. Furthermore, planned strategy assumes that a common agreement can be found by all the parties involved in the planning process and it appears to ignore organisational conflicts and politics, or at least assumes they can be easily identified and changed (Burnes, 1996). Theorists have argued that planning is a system on control. This school of thought considers that planned strategy does not relate to a system of thinking, rather as a method of control. It can be seen that planned strategies are implemented in the organisation in a top-down hierarchy structure (Bourlakis Bourlakis, 2001). On the other hand, traditionalist illustrate that organisations that do implement their strategies in a vertical, top-down process, retain functional stability within their business units and have the potential to improve and expand. Planned strategies are found in organisations that simply extrapolate established patterns in environments that they assume will stay stable. In a previous study by Mintzberg Waters (1982) cited in Mintzberg Waters (1985), It was found that strategies appear not to be conceived in planning processes so much as elaborated from existing visions or copied from industry standards and, therefore, do not constitute a thinking or learning process. According to Mintzberg (1988) planned strategy distorts the process of crafting strategy and thereby, misguides the organisations that embrace it unreservedly. Planned and formal strategies can process more hard data and information than in semi-structured planning. However the pitfall to these strategies is that they can never internalise, comprehend or synthesise information (Mintzberg, 1994, p. 111). In other words, planned strategy is not learning and evolving. It consists of a rational sequence with a known outcome. Emergent Strategy The approaches to strategic management are undergoing considerable change. There has been a remarkable shift from planned strategies to more flexible contingent approaches, which can emerge from chance events, as well as from cognitive, cultural and political processes. The emergent strategy rejects the planned approach to strategy. It sees strategies as a one-off exercise and more as a continuous process of change and advancement. Emergent strategies seek to align and re-align the organisation in unpredictable and rapidly changing environments. Furthermore, the reality in organisations is that management does not follow along predictive and linear assumptions. Hamel and Prahalad, cited in Davies Ellison (1998, p. 463) state that the predictive horizon is becoming shorter and shorter. So plans do little more than project the present toward incrementally. It is important to understand the interacting non-linear influences that actions are affected by in order to formulate effective strategies (Macbeth, 2002). Emergent strategies are most likely to be found in organisations characterised as adhocracies or project structures (Shiner, 2001). Changing and complex environments with unique products, incorporating the use of multidisciplinary teams and project work, typify these. Emergent strategies have many advantages in todays organisational settings. First, it stresses the developing and unpredictable nature of change. It views change as a process that unfolds through the interplay of multiple variables (context, political processes and consultation) within an organisation (Burnes, 1996). Therefore, market structure and demands provide the environment that creates much of the need for emergent strategies. Turbulent, competitive and unpredictable markets, together with innovative products, increase the need for emergent strategies. However, emergent strategies tend to lack the coherence of methods and techniques accumulated by the planned approach to strategy. Emergent strategies also lack the presence of competitive advantage based on core competence. This is due to the strategies constantly changing, with no one major idea. Therefore, organisations cannot exploit or develop particular core competences. Emerging organisational strategies make use of a feedback response mechanism. Therefore, responses from competitors, employees, cross functional groups and internal/external environment all have an impact on the impending strategy formation. However, when organisations implement planned strategies, they often sever the vital feedback link between cross-function and dependent groups. This is means that useful information may not be responded to and as such, potential strategies and processes are unrealised. One example that depicts the development of an emergent strategy in an organisation is Honda Motor Companys entry into the United States motorcycle industry in 1959. This illustrates how the planned strategy of entering the market with high powered 250cc and 350cc bikes failed, whereas the strategy of selling 50cc machines emerged (Marsden, 1998). This emerged strategy was so successful that in 1964, nearly one out of every two motorcycles sold was a Honda (Marsden, 1998). Emergent strategies represent ideas that have surfaced from organisations interactions with its customers, markets and competitors and may suggest approaches that were not considered during formal planning (Osborn, 1998). Emergent strategies arise from the daily activities of the organisation and, in many cases, represent bottom-up structure. Furthermore, organisations which are employing emergent strategies, resolve their issues horizontally and across functional teams, reiterating their lack of formal control systems and heightened awareness of learning and thinking processes. Emergent strategies give the organisation the chance to self-organise and realise its potential in more advanced strategies, activities and complexities (Fitzgerald, 2002). A focus on emergent strategies changes the traditional relationship between planning and control. Effective control systems can play a central role in identifying problems and matching them with specific strategic solutions, even if both elements surfaced from apparently random fashion within different parts of the networked organisation (Osborn, 1998). Emerging organisational designs are more organised more explicitly around processes than controlled, traditional, and hierarchical structures. Emergent strategy sees that strategy is an open-ending and continuous process. It can be viewed as a process of learning and not just a strategy of changing organisational structures and practices (Burnes, 1996). Purely planned strategy precludes learning once the strategy is formulated and beginning to be implemented. Emergent strategy advances and encourages thinking and learning (Mintzberg, 1988).

Monday, February 24, 2020

Human Resource Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Human Resource Development - Essay Example As a HR Manager, our company CEO has expressed a similar viewpoint, contending that HRD is unnecessary during the financial crisis and that the HRD budget should be the first to go in case of cost reduction. This is informed by previous actions taken after financial crises, during which this strategy worked. However, the present crisis is starkly different from the earlier ones as it has spread very fast globally and brought world economies close to collapse. This course of action, therefore, may not be as effective as it was earlier. Markets have been steadily decreasing with sales also shrinking; therefore, different solutions are required at company, national, and international level (Caprio, 2012: p54). The current crisis has been compared to the Great Depression, with the remedies used then being implemented by various companies to date (Jungmann et al, 2011: p33). However, serious and vital changes have happened since then. The most important difference is the change in the nat ional economy structures. Compared to the Great Depression era, the service sector has grown in significance with the industrial and agricultural sectors decreasing. This has meant that there has been an extensive strengthening in an area where connection to the material processes has been secondary, even as employment factors have remained significant (Fuchita et al, 2010: p65). Productive capital is to be found embedded into the employee’s and their work. This paper will seek to show that corporate methodology for dealing with the current crisis cannot follow earlier patterns by cutting funding to Human Resource Development L&D. This is informed partly by the character of the present crisis. This is especially factual for a company where intangible assets, have a vital role to play and where production is linked to knowledge instead of tangible assets. The Role of Learning and Development in Times of crisis The management of crisis and their solutions appears time to time i n the media. This usually involves reduction of working time for employees, lay-offs or cuts to Human Resource Development. In most cases, the organizations have no choice with regards to avoiding insolvency or bankruptcy. Cutting funding to Human Resource Development, however, offers short-term solutions while leading to long-term problems (Lazear & Michael, 2009: p44). One assumption made regarding knowledge management is that human capital and information play a more significant role in the input process. A significant part of the organization’s value lies with human capital, i.e. the knowledge in its employees possession, which is a crucial factors as far as improved corporate performance and competitiveness are concerned (Lazear, 1998: p10). Faced by a crisis, however, an organization may begin paying inadequate attention to the retention of knowledge that is lay-offs as well as the improvement of knowledge for its employees. Most companies will utilize a â€Å"lawnmowe r principle† with an aim to reduce costs by trying to economize on their highest components of cost; wages and Human Resource Development (Buckley & Jim, 2009: p22). This strategy, however, is limited in its effectiveness. Cutting costs involves the sacrifice of resources in order to increase profit, with whoever is tasked to examine resource utilization attempting to cut costs by all means possible. Costs, however, occur during operation and not at the investment point. Assets improve profits and costs need